Китайский язык: Перезагрузка (Неделя 1)

The chinese language reloaded week 1

Подошла к концу моя первая неделя эксперимента «Китайский язык: Перезагрузка». Подведу небольшие итоги.

За эту неделю было выучено 80 китайских иероглифов из HSK 1.

Это на 20 иероглифов меньше, чем запланировано, но эксперимент начался во вторник, поэтому выучено только 80 иероглифов. На следующей неделе постараюсь выучить 120 иероглифов для ровного подсчета. Все-таки считать по сотне в неделю значительно легче.

Вот список китайских иероглифов из HSK 1, которые были выучены мной за эту неделю:

Китайский иероглиф Пиньинь Перевод на английский
de of / ~’s (possessive particle) / (used after an attribute) / (used to form a nominal expression) / (used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis)
aim / clear
really and truly
one / 1 / single / a (article) / as soon as / entire / whole / all / throughout / «one» radical in Chinese characters (Kangxi radical 1)
shì is / are / am / yes / to be / variant of 是[shì] / used in given names
zài (located) at / (to be) in / to exist / in the middle of doing sth / (indicating an action in progress)
liǎo (of eyes) bright / clear-sighted / to understand clearly / to finish / to achieve / to understand
le (modal particle intensifying preceding clause) / (completed action marker)
yǒu to have / there is / there are / to exist / to be
rén man / person / people / CL:個|个[gè],位[wèi]
(negative prefix) / not / no
guó country / nation / state / national / CL:個|个[gè]
Guó surname Guo
zhōng within / among / in / middle / center / while (doing sth) / during
zhòng to hit (the mark) / to be hit by / to suffer / to win (a prize, a lottery)
Zhōng China / Chinese / surname Zhong
big / huge / large / major / great / wide / deep / oldest / eldest
dài see 大夫[dài fu]
nián year / CL:個|个[gè]
Nián surname Nian
shàng on top / upon / above / upper / previous / first (of multiple parts) / to climb / to get onto / to go up / to attend (class or university)
shǎng see 上聲|上声[shǎng shēng]
zhè this / these / (commonly pr. [zhèi] before a classifier, esp. in Beijing)
individual / this / that / size / classifier for people or objects in general / variant of 個|个[gè]
I / me / my
and / together with / with / sum / union / peace / harmony / Taiwan pr. [hàn] when it means «and»
to complete a set in mahjong or playing cards
cap (a poem) / to respond in singing
surname He / Japanese (food, clothes etc)
huò to mix together / to blend
huó soft / warm
sun / day / date, day of the month / abbr. for 日本 Japan
shí o’clock / time / when / hour / season / period / old variant of 時|时[shí]
Shí surname Shi
huì can / to be possible / to be able to / will / to be likely to / to be sure to / to assemble / to meet / to gather / to see / union / group / association / CL:個|个[gè] / a moment (Taiwan pr. for this sense is [huǐ])
kuài to balance an account / accountancy / accounting
chū to go out / to come out / to occur / to produce / to go beyond / to rise / to put forth / to happen / classifier for dramas, plays, operas etc / variant of 出[chū] (classifier for plays or chapters of classical novels)
lái to come / to arrive / to come round / ever since / next
he or him / (used for either sex when the sex is unknown or unimportant) / (used before sb’s name for emphasis) / (used as a meaningless mock object) / other / another
jiā home / family / (polite) my (sister, uncle etc) / classifier for families or businesses / refers to the philosophical schools of pre-Han China / noun suffix for a specialist in some activity, such as a musician or revolutionary, corresponding to English -ist, -er, -ary or -ian / CL:個|个[gè]
Jiā surname Jia
shēng to be born / to give birth / life / to grow / raw, uncooked
men plural marker for pronouns, and nouns referring to individuals
duì right / correct / couple / pair / towards / at / for / to face / opposite / to treat (sb a certain way) / to match together / to adjust / to fit / to suit / to answer / to reply / classifier: couple
a period of time / phase / stage / (used for issue of a periodical, courses of study) / time / term / period / to hope / Taiwan pr. [qí]
yuè moon / month / CL:個|个[gè],輪|轮[lún]
duō many / much / a lot of / numerous / more / in excess / how (to what extent) / multi- / Taiwan pr. [duó] when it means «how»
néng to be able to / to be capable of / ability / capability / able / capable / can possibly / (usually used in the negative) to have the possibility of
Néng surname Neng
běn roots or stems of plants / origin / source / this / the current / root / foundation / basis / classifier for books, periodicals, files etc / originally
xué to learn / to study / science / -ology
xiàn to appear / present / now / existing / current
shuō to speak / to say / to explain / to scold / to tell off / a theory (usually in compounds such as 日心说 heliocentric theory)
shuì to persuade
zuò to do / to grow / to write or compose / to pretend / to regard as / to feel / writings or works
diàn electric / electricity / electrical
qián front / forward / ahead / ago / before / first / former / formerly / future / BC (e.g. 前293年)
xià down / downwards / below / lower / later / next (week etc) / second (of two parts) / to decline / to go down / to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc)
kāi to open / to start / to turn on / to boil / to write out (a prescription, check, invoice etc) / to operate (vehicle) / abbr. for 開爾文|开尔文 degrees Kelvin
tiān day / sky / heaven
běi north / to be defeated (classical)
jīng capital city of a country / big / algebraic term for a large number (old) / artificial mound (old)
Jīng abbr. for Beijing / surname Jing / Jing ethnic minority
fēn to divide / to separate / to distribute / to allocate / to distinguish (good and bad) / part or subdivision / fraction / one tenth (of certain units) / unit of length equivalent to 0.33 cm / minute / a point (in sports or games) / 0.01 yuan (unit of money)
fèn part / share / ingredient / component
gāo high / tall / above average / loud / your (honorific)
Gāo surname Gao
dōu all / both / entirely / (used for emphasis) even / already / (not) at all
surname Du
capital city / metropolis
gōng work / worker / skill / profession / trade / craft / labor
son / child / seed / egg / small thing / 1st earthly branch: 11 p.m.-1 a.m., midnight, 11th solar month (7th December to 5th January), year of the Rat / Viscount, fourth of five orders of nobility 五等爵位[wǔ děng jué wèi]
zi (noun suffix)
xiǎo small / tiny / few / young
miàn face / side / surface / aspect / top / classifier for flat surfaces such as drums, mirrors, flags etc / flour / noodles
machine / engine / opportunity / intention / aircraft / pivot / crucial point / flexible (quick-witted) / organic / CL:臺|台[tái]
surname Ji
tóng like / same / similar / together / alike / with
tòng see 衚衕|胡同[hú tòng]
chē car / vehicle / CL:輛|辆[liàng] / machine / to shape with a lathe
Chē surname Che
war chariot (archaic) / rook (in Chinese chess) / rook (in chess)
guān mountain pass / to close / to shut / to turn off / to concern / to involve
Guān surname Guan
míng name / noun (part of speech) / place (e.g. among winners) / famous / classifier for people
lining / interior / inside / internal / also written 裏|里[lǐ] / li (Chinese mile) / 500 meters (modern) / home / hometown / village / neighborhood / administrative unit / lining / interior / inside / internal / also written 裡|里[lǐ]
Li (surname)
hào to be fond of / to have a tendency to / to be prone to
hǎo good / well / proper / good to / easy to / very / so / (suffix indicating completion or readiness) / (of an unmarried couple) to be close / to be keen on each other
méi (negative prefix for verbs) / have not / not
drowned / to end / to die / to inundate
míng bright / opposite: dark 暗[àn] / (of meaning) clear / to understand / next / public or open / wise / generic term for a sacrifice to the gods
Míng Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) / surname Ming / Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝[Yán dì] descended from Shennong 神農|神农[Shén nóng] Farmer God
kàn to see / to look at / to read / to watch / to consider / to regard as / to view as / to treat as / to judge / (after repeated verb) to give it a try / depending on (how you’re judging) / to visit / to call on / to treat (an illness) / to look after / Watch out! (for a danger)
kān to look after / to take care of / to watch / to guard
diǎn point / dot / drop / speck / o’clock / point (in space or time) / to draw a dot / to check on a list / to choose / to order (food in a restaurant) / to touch briefly / to hint / to light / to ignite / to pour a liquid drop by drop / (old) one fifth of a two-hour watch 更[gēng] / dot stroke in Chinese characters / classifier for items
to rise / to raise / to get up / to set out / to start / to appear / to launch / to initiate (action) / to draft / to establish / to get (from a depot or counter) / verb suffix, to start / (before place or time) starting from / classifier for occurrences or unpredictable events: case, instance / classifier for groups: batch, group
xīng star / satellite / small amount
xiē some / few / several / measure word indicating a small amount or small number (greater than 1)
sān three / 3
Sān surname San
hěn (adverb of degree) / quite / very / awfully
to go / to go to (a place) / to cause to go or send (sb) / to remove / to get rid of / (when used either before or after a verb) to go in order to do sth / to be apart from in space or time / (after a verb of motion indicates movement away from the speaker) / (used after certain verbs to indicate detachment or separation) / (of a time or an event etc) just passed or elapsed
shāng commerce / to consult / quotient / 2nd note in pentatonic scale
Shāng the Shang dynasty, 16th to 11th century BC
jīn today / modern / present / current / this / now
me suffix, used to form interrogative 甚麼|什么[shén me], what?, indefinite 這麼|这么[zhè me] thus, etc.
exclamatory final particle
yāo youngest / most junior / tiny / one (unambiguous spoken form when spelling out numbers, esp. on telephone or in military) / one or ace on dice or dominoes / variant of 吆[yāo], to shout
ma interrogative final particle
Yāo surname Yao
yàng manner / pattern / way / appearance / shape / CL:個|个[gè]
that / those / then (in that case) / commonly pr. [nèi] before a classifier, esp. in Beijing
variant of 哪[nǎ]
dōng east / host (i.e. sitting on east side of guest) / landlord
Dōng surname Dong
xiǎng to think / to believe / to suppose / to wish / to want / to miss (feel wistful about the absence of sb or sth)
西 west
西 the West / abbr. for Spain 西班牙[Xī bān yá] / Spanish
shuǐ water / river / liquid / beverage / additional charges or income / (of clothes) classifier for number of washes
Shuǐ surname Shui
yǐng picture / image / film / movie / photograph / reflection / shadow / trace
huà dialect / language / spoken words / speech / talk / words / conversation / what sb said / CL:種|种[zhǒng],席[xí],句[jù],口[kǒu],番[fān]
shì to look at / to regard / to inspect
you (informal, as opposed to courteous 您[nín])

На самом деле, все иероглифы из HSK 1 уже давно выучены и я просто их повторяю. Особое внимание при повторении уделяю тонам китайских иероглифов. А то бывает, знаешь иероглиф, но не помнишь каким тоном он произносится.

Трудностей пока никаких нет, но через пару недель они точно появятся, так как мой запас иероглифов иссякнет и придется по-настоящему их учить.

А как вы учите иероглифы? Какие методы используете при изучении иероглифов? И, наверно, самый важный вопрос: сколько времени уделяете изучению иероглифов?

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